In understanding an organization it is of key importance to understand the reason the organization is there in the first place, it’s goals. Why does it exist and what does it add what another organization cannot. In the book Value (the four cornerstones of corporate finance) the authors state that every business needs to generate value. Business is driven by its growth and return on capital, resulting in cash flow.
Tip; the first chapter of Value is shared by McKinsey.
In understanding an organization it is also important to note the phase and environment in which it is operating; situational awareness. Startups, scale-ups, established companies and companies in decline all have different goals and value drivers. The same goes for the state of the society they are in, which (we have seen) can have a major influence on the cost of capital.